Mater et Magistra marks the beginning of a transition in the ethical methodology of Catholic Social Teaching towards a more inductive approach. For the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit. 122. Indeed, in accordance with "the principle of subsidiary function," public authority must encourage and assist private enterprise, entrusting to it, wherever possible, the continuation of economic development. Or what exchange shall a man give for his soul?" 62. As Our Predecessor, Pope Pius Xl, lamented in Quadragesimo Anno: "And so bodily labor, which even after original sin was decreed by Providence for the good of man's body and soul, is in many instances changed into an instrument of perversion; for from the factory dead matter goes out improved, whereas men there are corrupted and degraded." The Lay Apostolate, therefore, has an important role to play in social educationâespecially those associations and organizations which have as their specific objective the christianization of contemporary society. AAS 35 (1943) 17. 133. Hence, as the Pope remarked so discerningly, "economic domination has taken the place of the open market. 248. It is this: Economic progress must be accompanied by a corresponding social progress, so that all classes of citizens can participate in the increased productivity. It is not, of course, possible to lay down hard and fast rules regarding the manner of such participation, for this must depend upon prevailing conditions, which vary from firm to firm and are frequently subject to rapid and substantial alteration. They must beware of. It is well-known that in recent years in the larger industrial concerns distinction has been growing between the ownership of productive goods and the responsibility of company managers. In using their various organizations, agricultural workersâas indeed all other classes of workersâmust always be guided by moral principles and respect for the civil law. 31. Hence, when rulers of nations appeal to justice and the demands of justice, they not only disagree on terms, but often increase the tension that exists between their States. We should recall here the principle enunciated by Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno: "It is entirely false to ascribe to the property alone or to the work alone whatever has been obtained through the combined effort of both, and it is wholly unjust for either, denying the efficacy of the other, to arrogate to itself whatever has been produced." 242. It was at such a time and under pressure of such circumstances as these that Leo XIII wrote his social encyclical, Rerum Novarum, based on the needs of human nature itself and animated by the principles and spirit of the Gospel. The root cause of so much mistrust is the presence of ideological differences between nations, and more especially between their rulers. 142. They are caused, more often than not, by a deficient economic and social organization, which does not offer living conditions proportionate to the increase in population. Personal gain was considered the only valid motive for economic activity. This development in the social life of man is at once a symptom and a cause of the growing intervention of the State, even in matters which are of intimate concern to the individual, hence of great importance and not devoid of risk. 249. 52. The progress of science and technology that has already been achieved opens up almost limitless horizons in this held. 107. 176. In this way both will contribute to, and share in, the increased welfare of man and the progress of culture. 137. They can therefore be instrumental in reducing imbalances between the different classes of citizens. Consequently, farmers find greater difficulty in obtaining the capital necessary to increase returns. It lays claim to the whole man, body and soul, intellect and will, inducing him to raise his mind above the changing conditions of this earthly existence and reach upwards for the eternal life of heaven, where one day he will find his unfailing happiness and peace. 47. We are going to talk about one of the church's encyclicals!Are you ready?OK! But granting this, We must nevertheless state most emphatically that no statement of the problem and no solution to it is acceptable which does violence to man's essential dignity; those who propose such solutions base them on an utterly materialistic conception of man himself and his life. History shows with ever-increasing clarity that it is not only the relations between workers and managers that need to be re-established on the basis of justice and equity, but also those between the various branches of the economy, between areas of varying productivity within the same political community, and between countries with a different degree of social and economic development. We consider it Our duty to give further advice on this matter. Above all, all human activity reveals an innate human desire for truth. 72. Justice and humanity demand that those countries which produce consumer goods, especially farm products, in excess of their own needs should come to the assistance of those other countries where large sections of the population are suffering from want and hunger. 205. We would give Our special approval to the increasing assistance they are giving, in all sorts of ways, to African and Asian students scattered throughout the universities of Europe and America; and to the care that is being devoted to the training of those persons who are prepared to go to the less wealthy areas in order to engage in work of technical and professional nature. Its remuneration, therefore, cannot be made to depend on the state of the market. 8. On the contrary, We insist that they must intensify it and increase it continually. 100. 125. But the truth is that these very advances in science and technology frequently involve the whole human race in such difficulties as can only be solved in the light of a sincere faith in God, the Creator and Ruler of man and his world. On the supernatural level, the Gospels and the whole ascetic tradition of the Church require a sense of mortification and penance which assures the rule of the spirit over the flesh, and offers an efficacious means of expiating the punishment due to sin, from which no one, except Jesus Christ and His Immaculate Mother, is exempt. It is a task which belongs particularly to Our sons, the laity, for it is their lot to live an active life in the world and organize themselves for the attainment of temporal ends. Those who violate His laws not only offend the divine majesty and degrade themselves and humanity, they also sap the vitality of the political community of which they are members. Thus, religion and moral and physical well-being are one in demanding this periodic rest, and for many centuries now the Church has set aside Sunday as a special day of rest for the faithful, on which they participate in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, the memorial and application of Christ's redemptive work for souls. As for the State, its whole raison d'etre is the realization of the common good in the temporal order. This has created considerable problems for public authorities, whose duty it is to see that the aims pursued by the leaders of the principal organizationsâespecially those which have an important part to play in the national economyâdo not conflict in any way with the interests of the common good. (1) IOANNES PP. 175. On the subject of work, Pius XII repeated the teaching of the Leonine encyclical, maintaining that a man's work is at once his duty and his right. Balancing Economic Development and Social Progress. She has formulated, particularly over the past hundred years, and through the efforts of a very well informed body of priests and laymen, a social doctrine which points out with clarity the sure way to social reconstruction. To safeguard man's dignity as a creature of God endowed with a soul in the image and likeness of God, the Church has always demanded a diligent observance of the third Commandment: "Remember that thou keep holy the sabbath day." Hence, in Quadragesimo Anno Pope Pius XI rightly observed that "a proper proportion between different wages is also a matter of importance." In their economic and social activities, Catholics often come into contact with others who do not share their view of life. The Great Depression and World War II had ended, the cold war had begun, and technology allowed for increased … Or O.I.T. This attitude is contagious, especially when it infects the work that is being done for the less developed countries, which have often preserved in their ancient traditions an acute and vital awareness of the more important human values, on which the moral order rests. 200. By their combined efforts thousands of young people are being given facilities for attending the universities of the more advanced countries, and acquiring an up-to-date scientific, technical and professional training. It is a charity which combines the precepts and practice of mutual love. Aid from the developed world should come in the form of food for the hungry, but also technology and infrastructure to help other nations develop themselves. Human life is sacred and is created through the family which must be maintained and strengthened. They help to make him a better man, both in the natural and the supernatural order. It is a magnificent work that they are doing, and We are most happy to take this occasion of giving it the praise that it deserves. When we realize that this movement of population is going on in nearly every part of the world, often on a large scale, we begin to appreciate the complexity of the human problems involved and their difficulty of solution. He reiterated the principles of the Leonine encyclical and stressed those directives which were applicable to modern conditions. The Church has always emphasized that this obligation of helping those who are in misery and want should be felt most strongly by Catholics, in view of the fact that they are members of the Mystical Body of Christ. In addition, he took the opportunity not only to clarify certain points of this teaching which had given rise to difficulties even in the minds of Catholics, but also to reformulate Christian social thought in the light of changed conditions. As Our Predecessor Pius XII observed with evident justification: "Likewise the national economy, as it is the product of the men who work together in the community of the State, has no other end than to secure without interruption the material conditions in which the individual life of the citizens may fully develop. These, then, are the educational principles which must be put into effect. 25. 14. Concerning the use of material goods, Our Predecessor declared that the right of every man to use these for his own sustenance is prior to every other economic right, even that of private property. The root of such inability is not to be sought in scientific, technical or economic reasons, but in the absense of mutual trust. In some countries arable land abounds, but there is a scarcity of population; whereas in other countries the position is reversed: the population is large, arable land scarce. (25). It is therefore Our urgent desire that this doctrine be studied more and more. 217. Human Solidarity and Christian Brotherhood. "Mater et Magistra" (Mother and Teacher) is an encyclical written by Pope John XXIII, which was promulgated on 15 May 1961. The second point which We consider basic in the encyclical is his teaching that man's aim must be to achieve in social justice a national and international juridical order, with its network of public and private institutions, in which all economic activity can be conducted not merely for private gain but also in the interests of the common good. We would observe, finally, that the efforts of individuals, or of groups of private citizens, are definitely more effective in promoting spiritual values than is the activity of public authority. Pius XII, however, comes to our rescue with the following directive: "The small and average sized undertakings in agriculture, in the arts and crafts, in commerce and industry, should be safeguarded and fostered. 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